In the past, there were many kingdoms in the archipelago. Starting from the west end to the east end. One of the great kingdoms that ever existed in the archipelago was the Ancient Mataram Kingdom.
What is the history of the Ancient Mataram Kingdom? It is said that this kingdom was once centered in Jombang and Madiun, East Java. To find out in full, see the following explanation.
History of the Ancient Mataram Kingdom
Launching from Widiyatmiko’s writing in the Journal of Gunadarma University, the Ancient Mataram Kingdom or often called the Hindu Mataram Kingdom or Medang Kingdom was a continuation of the Kalingga Kingdom in Central Java around the 8th century AD. Subsequently, this kingdom moved to East Java in the 10th century.
The mention of Ancient Mataram or Hindu Mataram is useful to distinguish this kingdom from the Islamic Mataram kingdom which was founded around the 16th century. The Ancient Mataram Kingdom collapsed in the early 11th century.
Quoted from the writings of Hariani Santiko in the Journal of History and Culture, the name of the ancient Mataram kingdom is mentioned in the Canggal inscription (654 Saka/732 AD). The inscription was found in the temple yard of Mount Wukir, Salam District, Magelang.
Center of the Ancient Mataram Kingdom
Widiyatmiko explained that the Ancient Mataram Kingdom was first established in Yogyakarta under the name of its palace, Rajya Medang i Bhumi Mataram. Bhumi Mataram is the old name for Yogyakarta and its surroundings.
The term Mataram was then commonly used to refer to the name of the kingdom as a whole, although this kingdom was not always centered in Yogyakarta. The reason is that the center of the Ancient Mataram Kingdom has experienced several displacements.
There are a number of areas that were once the location of the palace of the Ancient Mataram Kingdom based on the inscriptions that have been found. Namely:
- Medang i Bhumi Mataram (Sanjaya era)
- Medang i Mamrati (era of Rakai Pikatan)
- Medang i Poh Pitu (Dyah Balitung era)
- Medang i Bhumi Mataram (Dyah Wawa era)
- Medang i Tamwlang (the era of Mpu Sindok)
- Medang i Watugaluh (the era of Mpu Sindok)
- Medang i Wwatan (Dharmawangsa Teguh era)
For information, Mamrati and Poh Pitu are estimated to be located in the Kedu Residency area, Central Java. Meanwhile, Tamwlang is now called Tembelan, while Watugaluh is now called Megaluh. Both are located in the Jombang area. The last palace, namely Wwatan, is now called Wotan, which is located in the Madiun area.
Read Dynasties and Heritage of the Ancient Mataram Kingdom on the next page